I was wondering how much Marx, Engels and Merton share their top-down view on criminal whereas one puts them in the context of productivity, and the other sees them as survivals who abandon the effort to break the yoke.
Although Merton seems to look at the criminal more closely and categorises them into groups based on their reaction to the monopoly of the society, his modes of adaptions seem to go more hand in hand with the ideas of Marx and Engels.
It might seem that the source of the crime lies in the social class consciousness but what their idea projects, seems to be the unconscious thoughts and feelings produced by social class inequalities.
What Engels starts to call the demoralised working class with no will, ends up to fit the characteristics of the ritualistic group who are so busy striving to make the life than eventually give up on fighting the system.
And the ones who questioned the class difference of hard working ones and the rich ones, eventually gave up to the power of WANT and innovatively stole.
Similarly, the dangerous class of Marx's version of the lower class, unproductive, social scum and the rotting mass, somehow projects the characteristics of the Retreatist group.
Finally, the result of all these conflicts and contradictions with capitalism, would be the rebellion of the working class, which in its least productive form results in crime.