The source of the problems is not between the offender and victims and is not in the streets of Harlem and Brixton.
The dominant and majority portion of a society feel a rising threat from the marginalised and minority groups (Box & Hale, 1982, p. 22). The socio-economic situation of the already marginalised groups fabricates a potential decline in their conformity to the dominant social norms (Jankovic, 1977, p. 20; Wenzelburger, 2018, p. 211).
Whether it is the moral panic and the perceived danger of the unknown ‘others’ for the ordinary people of the society, or the threat from gaining momentum of the social movements that need to be put back in their ‘proper’ place by the middle-class, or lack of ‘worthiness’ for political exploitation in identity politics and penal populism, victims of crime and in particular hate crime are at the receiving end of the harm spectrum.
It is worth mentioning the trace of political narratives in all above cases. The increased hate crime against the European migrants after the Brexit is significantly due to the normalisation of hate speech towards migrants by government officials in order to gain political party momentum.
The civil rights movement, the Black lives matter movement, the kneeling of the Black footballers, and so on, are only some of the reactions to the oppression of the dominant middle class in ever criminalising and exploiting black people for political and economic gains.
The Sophie Lancaster foundation that persuaded several police forces in England to monitor alternative cultures has not yet be able to breakthrough the resistant wall of the politicians to officially include this vulnerable group into the sixth form of protected characteristics.
Sexual workers of Merseyside, homeless people of the streets, victims of misogyny and misandry are the ones that are not worthy enough in the eye of politicians to be even exploited for the penal populism. Their journey for gaining recognition is still ahead.
The source of the problems is not between the offender and victims and is not in the streets of Harlem and Brixton. It is where the media, political narratives and middle-class attitudes are driven from.